Incorrect tongue rest position- The correct tongue resting position is in the roof of the mouth (palate). It should be in this rest position at all times except eating or speaking which results in forward and downward force from the cheeks and lips resulting in the growth of the upper jaw growing larger, more forward, adn wider. If the tongue is not resting in the correct position that makes the upper jaw grow smaller, further backward and narrower.
Dysfunctional swallow- Normal chewing process requires the usage of the muscles of mastication . Abnormal chewing includes the usage of some of the muscles of facial expression, usually the mentalis (chin muscle), orbicularis oris (lip muscle), and the buccinators (cheek muscle) which results in restricted growth of lower jaw inturn gows downward and backward
Bottle feeding – Breastfeeding requires the tongue to go up and come out especially the middle of the tongue. Bottlefeeding pushes the tongue down. when tongue muscle is pushed down, it is compensated with other muscles.
Mouth breathing– nose helps in the natural way of breathing but when it happens through the mouth that is where the problem raises. Mouth breathing in child is very common nowadays but leaving untreated will lead to sleep disoreder breathing and obstructive sleep apnea.
Poor posture- The head should be in a straight line with the spinal cord and the shoulders should be slightly backward and downward. The use of gadgets head usually results in slouching of shoulders (usually roll forward). The slouching and forward positioning of head and shoulder leads to compromised airway, airflow gets decreased to lungs
Poor oral habits include thumb sucking, digit sucking, pillow sucking, tongue sucking, pacifier use, lip sucking, mouth breathing and nail biting etc..These habits can alter the balanced force in the normal face, results in orofacial muscular dysfunction leads to narrow arch and jaws>compromised airway> crooked teeth